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Draft article on referencing for your consideration. 

Hi everyone,
below is a short draft article I am writing for a Judo coaching course, I woudl appreciate your opinions/comments on it. It is a very early draft so your polish would be much appreciated.

What I am trying to do is explain why writing with references is important and worthwhile, I think I am missing the mark at the moment, do you agree?



Judo coaches are entrusted with educating their students, this is a responsibility that we should treat with great seriousness.
What we tell students is taken as fact and should be exactly that; yet how do we know or show that what we say is fact and not an old wives tale?
Referencing... that's how.

Referencing is the discipline of showing where your information comes from. Rather than just saying that Judo was created in 1882, you need to say where you you learnt this little fact.
So where did you learn this fact? Who said this?
This source of the information is your reference, you need to "cite" your reference in your writing and then list all the references at the end of what you write.

By providing these citations and your reference list, you show where your information comes from. You show where you learned, you provide a path that another coach could follow.
This could be so that they could check your facts, or simple so they have a better understanding of your train of thought. Of course, it also gives them a good reading list should they want to learn more about the areas you are writing about.

It is also good manners and an important way of showing respect for the people who have provided the knowledge that you are sharing.
It is also important academically to show what is your opinions or findings and what is the work of others. You do not with to steal others works, referencing others works in your work, shows this.

How to cite a reference:
Now this is slightly tricky as there are a variety of methods of referencing. There is the AMA method where a simple number in superscript is added to the text and the number refers to the source listed at the end of the document. At the University of Bath (on the Judo courses) we are using the APA method. In the APA method we need to include in the text of your work the name of the author(s) and the year the source was published. At the end of your document you list all your references by the authors last name.

Now to cite a reference that said that Jigoro Kano founded the Kodokan in 1882, you might cite of of the many books that include this fact like this:

Jigoro Kano founded the Kodokan in 1882 (Kashiwazaki & Nakanishi, 1992)⁠ .

or better yet you might cite several sources, which adds more weight and authenticity to what you are stating, better yet, you might phrase what you are stating as their opinion after all they might be wrong, you would do this as follows:

Jigoro Kano founded the Kodokan in 1882 according to Kashiwazaki & Nakanishi (1992)⁠ and this is supported by other authors (James Pedro, Jimmy Pedro, & Durbin, 2001; Sterkowicz & Maslej, 1999; Villamon, Brown, Espartero, & Gutierrez, 2004)⁠.

As you can see, you can use the authors name in the text and just put the publication date in brackets, you can also put a collection of authors together.
At the end of your document you then need to list all the references, something like this:

Kashiwazaki, K., & Nakanishi, H. (1992). Attacking Judo (p. 136). Ippon Books.
Pedro, J., Pedro, J., & Durbin, W. (2001). Judo Techniques & Tactics (p. 192). Human Kinetics.
Sterkowicz, S., & Maslej, P. (1999). An evaluation of the technical and tactical aspects of judo matches at the senior level.
Villamon, M., Brown, D., Espartero, J., & Gutierrez, C. (2004). Reflexive Modernization and the Disembedding of Judo from 1946 to the 2000 Sydney Olympics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39(2), 139-156. doi: 10.1177/1012690204043458.

You can probably tell by now that to wrote in this manner takes time and energy. The easiest way to make your life easier is to maintain a database of your references and use that database to write your citations and reference list. There are several products that can do this, including the build in system in Word 2007. T system I use and recommend is a free software package called Zotero.

Zotero consists of two components, a plugin for the (also free) Firefox web browser and extensions for Word or Open Office, that adds the citations and reference lists to your work. having the software in Firefox is handy as it is often from the internet you shall find academic papers. of course you can add books or other non electronic references by hand. Once the information is in the database, you are able to access it from buttons within Word or Open Office.

The process of installing these software packages I shall show in a later post. But it is pretty easy, so please do visit and try it for yourself.


As a coach in the modern day and age, the time has passed when you could simply say something as a fact without stating where you learned what you are saying.
You are able to cite all sorts of sources, such as videos, lectures, workshops, DVDs, CD-ROMs, Websites, etc.

Hopefully this article has helped explain why referencing is so important and why it has value to you, your colleagues and your students.
I look forward to seeing more Judo articles that are referenced and to following the clues (citations) you leave behind so I can understand your thinking even better.


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